For centuries scholars have puzzled over the man - what he thought, what drove him, why he made the decisions he did.
Etymology[ edit ] The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu,  "the four suyu". In Quechuatawa is four and -ntin is a suffix naming a group, so that a tawantin is a quartet, a group of four things taken together, in this case representing the four suyu "regions" or "provinces" whose corners met at the capital.
The four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu northAntisuyu east; the Amazon jungleQullasuyu south and Kuntisuyu west. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces.
The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu. The term Inka means "ruler" or "lord" in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. As such, the name Imperio inca "Inca Empire" referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered.
Antecedents[ edit ] The Inca Empire was the last chapter of thousands of years of Andean civilization. Andean civilization was one of five civilizations in the world deemed by scholars to be "pristine", that is indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations.
The Wari occupied the Cuzco area for about years. Thus, many of the characteristics of the Inca Empire derived from earlier multi-ethnic and expansive Andean cultures. Incan oral history tells an origin story of three caves.
Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans.
Brooklyn Museum Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live. They traveled for a long time. On the way, Ayar Cachi boasted about his strength and power. His siblings tricked him into returning to the cave to get a sacred llama.
When he went into the cave, they trapped him inside to get rid of him. Ayar Uchu decided to stay on the top of the cave to look over the Inca people.
The minute he proclaimed that, he turned to stone. They built a shrine around the stone and it became a sacred object. Ayar Auca grew tired of all this and decided to travel alone. Only Ayar Manco and his four sisters remained. Finally, they reached Cusco.
The staff sank into the ground. The people who were already living in Cusco fought hard to keep their land, but Mama Huaca was a good fighter. When the enemy attacked, she threw her bolas several stones tied together that spun through the air when thrown at a soldier gualla and killed him instantly.
The other people became afraid and ran away. It is said that he and his sisters built the first Inca homes in the valley with their own hands. His son, Sinchi Roca, became the second emperor of the Inca. Inthey began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Sapa Inca paramount leader Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanquiwhose name literally meant "earth-shaker".
During his reign, he and his son Tupac Yupanqui brought much of the Andes mountains roughly modern Peru and Ecuador under Inca control. He then sent messages to their leaders extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles and promising that they would be materially richer as his subjects.
Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. Refusal to accept Inca rule resulted in military conquest.Did the Expansion of the Aztec Empire Lead to Their Downfall?
The Aztec Indians originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. At that time the Aztecs were a small, nomadic tribe living in the border territory on the margins of civilized Mesoamerica/5(1).
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, () was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
(13 August): The last Aztec emperor, Cuauhtémoc, surrenders to Cortes. For more fascinating information about the fall of the Aztec Empire, check out Aztecs and Conquistadores: The Spanish Invasion and the Collapse of the Aztec Empire by Dr.
John Pohl, Charles Robinson and Adam Hook. Start studying Unit 7: Expansion and discovery review. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Search. List factors that contributed to the downfall of both the Inca and the Aztec empire's. What were the effects of the Columbian exchange? Did the Expansion of the Aztec Empire Lead to Their Downfall?
The Aztec Indians originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. The Aztec Empire of the 14th and 15th centuries was one of the most successful and powerful Mesoamerican kingdoms at that time.
The community of people began in the middle of a lake and eventually became the capital of an empire.