For Chapter 5, the main point is that the U. In this era, which resembles out own in many ways, racism was endemic, political corruption was common, and inequality in wealth and incomes was extreme. All of this is very similar to what has been happening in the U. For the last thirty years, which could well be thought of as a Second Gilded Age.
The Roots of US Social Work The development of social work in the United States reflects an ongoing synthesis of ideas derived from many different cultures. While terms such as charity and philanthropy have Greek roots and are based on Biblical principles, modern social work concepts owe much to the influence of the Koran and the mutual aid practices of Native Americans, the African-American community, and immigrants from all over the world.
These systems served a dual role of compassion and protection. By the early 19th century, states began taking responsibility for distributing relief from towns and counties. Since government responses proved largely insufficient or ineffective in addressing growing social problems, private benevolent societies and self-help organizations the predecessors of modern social service agencies played increasing roles in this regard.
The roots of US social work date back to this period and the efforts of upper-class women and men in church-based and secular charitable organizations to address the consequences of poverty, urbanization, and immigration.
These untrained proto-social workers, known as "friendly visitors," sought to help poor individuals through moral persuasion and personal example. State boards of charity arose to improve the management of institutions constructed during the previous generation.
Industrialization and the Origins of Modern Social Work In the half century after the Civil War, rapid industrial expansion produced a dramatic increase in individual and community needs. The most notable social changes of this period included a series of economic depressions known then as "panics" and their consequences; new manifestations of racism following the end of Reconstruction in ; and a dramatic increase in immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
Using concepts derived from business and industry, reformers attempted to respond to some of these developments by regulating public relief distribution through so-called "scientific charity. Many COS clients, however, particularly poor Jews, Catholics, and African Americans, preferred more personal systems of self-help and mutual aid established by their own communities.
Settlement houses reflected a different type of organizational response to the impact of industrialization and immigration and introduced an alternative model of a social service agency a form of urban mission. Unlike the individually oriented COS, settlements focused on the environmental causes of poverty and expanding the working opportunities of the poor.
They conducted research, helped establish the juvenile court system, created widows pension programs, promoted legislation prohibiting child labor, and introduced public health reforms and the concept of social insurance.
Ellen Gates Starr Photo: While the settlements focused on what later became group work and community organization, social work in the COS increasingly focused on casework with individuals and families.
Sub-specialties in the areas of medical, psychiatric, and school social work began to appear in the early twentieth century.
The growth of casework as a distinct area of practice also stimulated the creation of a formal social work training program in Early curricula emphasized practical work rather than academic subjects.
Settlements like the Chicago Commons also developed educational programs as early as Formal methods-oriented training programs spread through major urban areas, most of them affiliated with private charitable organizations interested in standardizing the practices of their volunteers.Free Social Work papers, essays, and research papers.
My Account It is hoped, however, an overall balance can be achieved. In part one; the essay will begin with a brief history of social work methods. on individual responsibility.
However, every society is faced with the conflict of poverty that requires some type of social welfare. Problem Statement and Literature Review on Social Welfare Term Paper: for this assignment, The relevance of the problem to social work practice ; The research questions and hypotheses that have emerge from the above and which will serve as the focus of your proposed study.
long standing traditions and by changing economic and social conditions.
In its early history, the United States was an expanding 2 • • HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Grants to States for Maternal and Child Welfare Public Health Work Social Security Board Taxes with Respect to Employment (for Old-Age Insurance).
In this paper I will discuss the history of social welfare policies and its influence on families. The advance of the welfare state reflected period-specific needs and was . A History of Social Welfare and Social Work in the United States, New York: Columbia University Press Lubove, R.
(). The Professional Altruist: The Emergence of Social Work as a Career, , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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