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The number of international migrants in Asia in was estimated at This total includes 4. The Asia-Pacific region comprises not only major migrant countries of origin, but also traditional and emerging destination countries.
Countries like India and China have become countries of origin, transit and destination simultaneously. Widening North-South economic disparity, coupled with demographic challenges, continues to promote intraregional migration. It is estimated that 43 per cent of Asian migrants move within the region.
This brings positive impacts on consumption and economic growth. Notably, despite the global economic slowdown, remittance flows to South and East Asia have remained relatively robust.
In alone, 4 of the top 10 remittance-receiving countries were in Asia, and two, specifically, in South Asia namely, Bangladesh and India. Besides labour migration, the region experiences other voluntary flows for permanent migration and study.
Increasing mobility of students and retirees, as well as increasing international marriages particularly those involving North-East Asian menare notable trends in the region. Read More A significant share of the migratory flows in the Asia-Pacific region is irregular.
The region hosts the largest undocumented flows of migrants in the world, mainly between neighbouring countries. Irregular migration routes are not only intraregional but also extend beyond the region. Some of these movements are Asia pacific led market by smugglers, who may or may not be connected to transnational organized crime.
Mixed migratory flows are characteristic of the region, with some people on the move in search of better living conditions, while others are fleeing conflict and persecution. The increased security concerns associated with the negative perception of migration among host populations has led many countries to take a stronger stand against irregular movements.
With a growing number of migrants in administrative detention and returned to their country of origin, the costs of managing migration are increasing. This also poses new challenges from a human rights perspective.
States are working together to develop bilateral solutions or finding new responses at the regional level to increase the effectiveness of their response.
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At the same time, the region continues to host the largest number of refugees and displaced people in the world, with Pakistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran alone hosting 2.
These programmes, however, remain relatively small in scale in light of the size of refugee populations in the region. A key feature of the region is the significance of Statelessness and its nexus with migration.
Aside from ethnic groups that are not recognized as citizens in their countries of residence, there is the issue of second-generation migrants not registered at birth by their parents, in an irregular situation, and are at risk of Statelessness. Moreover, Stateless persons — in the absence of a national identity document — often have no access to international travel documents and therefore no option but to resort to irregular migration channels.
Their status often limits their social and economic opportunities and makes them more vulnerable to being targeted by traffickers. The region as a whole is highly susceptible to recurring natural hazards, as well as environmental degradation and the detrimental impacts of climate change.
Environmental and climate change-induced displacement and migration are becoming increasingly common phenomena in the region and are expected to continue to increase to challenging proportions.
These factors all demonstrate the need for the development of multi-sectoral approaches to migration management. South and South-West Asia.
Every year, over 1. In the labour migration context, many countries in the sub-region are important countries of origin, while India and Pakistan are also classified as countries of destination and transit.
Migration flows from South Asia to Europe are mostly composed of highly skilled migrants. Given the porous nature of borders in the region, there is also a trend of irregular, undocumented movements. As the long-term impacts of the global financial and economic crisis begin to be felt across South and South-West Asia, avenues for regular means of migration are likely to decrease, which may lead potential migrants to perceive irregular channels as an easier option despite the risks involved.
With pressures on the local economy and the labour market in destination countries, the global economic slowdown is leading to job cuts or restricted recruitment of foreign workers. In addition, the Arab Spring challenged the power of incumbent leaders and resulted in turmoil in Libya, leading to the massive evacuation of migrant workers from that country to South and South-East Asia.
This has prompted governments in South and South-West Asia to develop strategies for coping with the effects of changes in the labour market in destination countries due to economic or political crises, as well as exploring longer-term support for the rehabilitation of affected workers and finding new job opportunities abroad bySouth Asia will have the largest workforce in the world.
Additionally, there are a large number of internally displaced persons migrating within their own countries due to conflict, rural-urban disparities and environmental factors.
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