The main principle of attachment theory is that a child at his early stage of development is dependent on primary care giver. A primary care giver can be his mother or anyone close to him.
Theories Of Attachment Introduction The theory of attachment has been widely debated for years. It is an important issue because it concerns on how important it is in affecting later adult relationships.
A variety of different theories in attachment have been put forward in this essay and point to some of the problems that could happen later in life. Attachment describes patterns of relationships from birth to death. It was first studied with non-humans, then human infants and later in human adults.
Attachment theory provides an understanding in emotional reactions in infants, and also the basis for understanding love and behavioural problems such as aggression in adults. Attachment process for the parents seems to begin with the development of an initial emotional bond and then extends to more and more skilful attachment behaviours.
For the infant, the process seems to begin with attachment behaviours and then progresses to the full attachment somewhat later.
Two children the first being an affectionless teenager with no history of any stability, the second an anxious boy aged seven or eight caused bowlby to examine the theory of harmful effects of maternal deprivation in early character development.
It was claimed that attachment to the mother was that she provided all of the babies needs, such as warmth and nourishment. Freud's view, which was to become later known, as the Cupboard Theory was that the absence of the mother would frighten the baby into believing it, would not be nourished.
This theory has been criticized many Comparison of theories of attachment essay, as there is no evidence to suggest that the infant associates the mother with food. Bowlby's view to supplement this is that babies have inborn tendencies towards the mother and are not attached by food or warmth.
Isolated in cages each of the monkeys had one model mother made from wire, and another model mother made from terry cloth. The terry cloth model's had no provision in which to feed the infant monkey's but the study concluded that every time the monkey's were frightened they would cling to the terry cloth model.
Harlow called this "contact comfort".
The model mother's made from wire had the provision for feeding as they were equipped with a milk yielding nipples, yet the monkey's never sought any comfort from them, this disputed Freud's cupboard theory completely.
It proved that mother love is not nourishing but comforting, and children like the rhesus monkeys use teddy bear's for comfort if they feel in anyway threatened.
As cited in Gleitman,H; Fridlund,A. This paper from studentcentral. Duckling's form an attachment with the first thing they see which is usually the mother, and if separated show great distress.
Lorenz's study was to expose sets of ducklings to his own booted legs, a moving toy duck and a rectangle sliding backwards and forwards behind a glass window.
The results proved convincing as the duckling's imprint on Lorenz's legs, the toy and the rectangle caused the duckling's to follow these objects wherever they went, and they all showed great distress whenever the objects were not nearby.
In addition Bowlby's study of separation anxiety is that of a later stage in life of that of the ducklings. The study was aimed at children at the ages of six-eight months to eighteen months-two years.
He suggests that the infants understand attachment as they show distress and anxiety when the mother is absent. Infants cried a great deal and took time to comfort, the toddlers acted more defiantly, protesting at the mother's departure but he found this decreased from the age of two years up.
Their study of separation anxiety found that infants did show distress but not only with their mothers it was also directed to any adult who interacted or showed attentiveness towards the infant. As cited in Bower, T. Ainsworth's method of measuring security of attachment, called the "strange situation", has been widely used.
The strange situation consists of a series of episodes in a laboratory setting. The child is first with the mother, then the mother and a stranger, then alone with the stranger, then left completely alone for a few minutes.
Next the child is reunited with the mother, then left alone again, and finally re-united with the stranger then with the mother. Ainsworth suggested the children's reactions to this situation could be classified into three groups: The securely attached infant's mothers had encouraged close positive contact, this showed in the infant's behaviour as they cried less and were the least anxious.
Insecurely attached infants were rejecting and avoidant as their mothers showed less sensitivity, they also proved to be agitated and anxiously attached.
Ainsworth suggested that these strange situations predicted later social and emotional stability. As cited in Bukatkot and Daehler. Child Development 3rd Edition.
In addition a study by Waters b he found that the children's attachments could change with major events such as bereavement, divorce and abuse from secure to insecure.
As cited in Bee,Helen. The Developing Child 9th Edition. Changes in environment, finances, discipline and affection can all affect children's behaviours, and could cause poor educational development and social relationships later in life.
In different cultures attachments do vary according to a study by Grossman The theories explored and applied will include Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, Erikson’s psychosocial tasks, Bowlby’s attachment theory, Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, Bandura’s social learning theory and Vygotsky’s, and later Bronfenbrenner’s, ecological or developmental systems approach.
Attachment theory is the result of joint and individual research by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth, ). Drawing on concepts from psychoanalysts, developmental psychologists, psychology, and others, Bowlby formulated the basic theory. Description of Attachment Theory and Cognitive Theory The attachment theory asserts that children begin to develop psychological attachment to the first people they relate with, and knowledge acquired through such attachments influences their behavioural development (Inge , p.
38). The theories explored and applied will include Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, Erikson’s psychosocial tasks, Bowlby’s attachment theory, Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, Bandura’s social learning theory and Vygotsky’s, and later Bronfenbrenner’s, ecological or developmental systems approach.
"Compare And Contrast Attachment Theory And Set Theory" Essays and Research Papers Compare And Contrast Attachment Theory And Set Theory movements, gender mainstreaming into development. In this essay, I have considered to give attention to John Bowlby’s attachment theory and Jean Paiget’s cognitive theory focusing on child development.
An outline of the above mentioned two theories will be given and how it informs knowledge of human development.