Biography[ edit ] Saviano grew up near Caserta. His articles at the time were already important enough to spur judicial authorities at the beginning of to listen to him regarding organized crime. He is the author, along with Mario Gelardi, of a theatrical work of the same name and is a screenwriter for Gomorrahthe movie drawn from his novel.
Support Aeon Donate now The Sicilian mafia is probably the most famous criminal organisation in the world. Over the years, the Cosa Nostra and its North American Essays on camorra have been depicted in numerous books, movies and works of popular culture. Yet the origins of the mafia have been regarded as something of a mystery.
Recently, the economists Arcangelo Dimico, Alessia Isopi and I showed that a major catalyst for the rise of the mafia in Sicily was, somewhat surprisingly, the surge in demand for lemons and oranges that began in the first half of the 19th century.
But to understand how fruit cultivation could lead to organised crime, we need to go back even further, to the conditions prevailing in the British Royal Navy in the 18th century.
Beforesailors on long-distance voyages throughout the world were plagued by scurvy, a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency.
Early symptoms included malaise and fatigue, while the more advanced stages of the illness might involve loosening or losing teeth, emotional turbulence, fever and convulsions. The death rate on long-distance voyages was typically high. At the time, nobody had systematic knowledge of what causes scurvy, although they had derived sporadic insights.
Then, in the mids, James Lind, a Scottish physician in the Royal Navy, conducted the first ever clinical trials on sick sailors. A control group was given the usual food served on ships, while a small group was fed portions of fresh fruit as treatment.
Unsurprisingly to usthis second group got better, and Lind published his findings in A Treatise of the Scurvy However, the research was largely ignored until the s, when the Sick and Hurt Commissioners of the Royal Navy began recommending that lemon juice be regularly served to the whole fleet.
As knowledge of the beneficial effects of citrus spread through Europe, lemons became an increasingly precious commodity. However, due to their sensitivity to frosts, lemons could be grown only in certain locations, slightly above the coastline.
The recommendations of the Sick and Hurt Commissioners in Britain changed all this. In the coming decades, a great share of Sicilian agricultural production was redirected towards producing citrus fruits for the international market.
However, the shift to large-scale lemon cultivation was not quick or easy. Only certain areas of the island were suitable, and even those required a lot of money to get going. Once the seeds were sown, the young trees had to be pruned, fertilised and watered.
The lemon farmers typically used horse-powered mills to water the plants at least once a week. In order to protect the trees from thieves and harmful winds, the groves were often shielded by high walls and fences.
Unprotected groves with ripe lemons were otherwise an easy target for burglars or brigands. Several years of investment could easily be destroyed by marauders, or stolen during a single dark night.
So in the mids, when export revenues started to soar, the groves were typically protected by armed guards. Betweenthe number of lemon barrels exported from the Sicilian harbour of Messina increased from to 20, By the late s, exports had grown dramatically.
The boom in demand for citrus generated huge profits for the lemon cultivators of Sicily. But just who were these farmers and what sorts of conditions were they working in? Sicily in the early first half of the 19th century was characterised by fragile public institutions and a weak rule of law.
Bandits roamed the countryside, and theft and poverty plagued the population. The roots of these problems ran deep.Gomorrah by Roberto Saviano. Saved essays Save your essays here so you can locate them quickly!
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Mafia; Marco Polo order to force the reader’s appreciation of the reality that is the havoc and devastation wreaked on the world by the Camorra. This was a way to convey his anger and frustration on what is currently. Italian Mafia Essay Words | 6 Pages. The Mafia was first developed in Sicily in feudal times to protect the estates of landlords who were out of town.
1) Describe the role and function of the Transnational Organized Crime Convention and the Convention’s relationship to its Protocols.
The. Essays on art, politics and life from the best-selling author of Gomorrah Gomorrah, Roberto Saviano’s exposé of Naples’s Camorra mafia, was an international bestseller and became an award-winning film/5(5).
Beauty and the Inferno: Essays [Roberto Saviano, Oonagh Stranksy] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Gomorrah, Roberto Saviano’s exposé of Naples’s Camorra mafia, was an international bestseller and became an award-winning film.
But the death threats that followed forced the author into hiding.
Saviano was /5(2). Camorra: Camorra,, Italian secret society of criminals that grew to power in Naples during the 19th century. Its origins are uncertain, but it may have existed in Spain as early as the 15th century and been transported thence to Italy.
As the Camorra grew in influence and power, its operations included.