This is why this first lesson is unusually lecture-like. What I aim to teach in this new series of lessons is not the traditional flowing scripts that the words "Arabic calligraphy" evoke.
Bind rune and scribal abbreviation The origin of typographical ligatures comes from the invention of writing with a stylus on fibrous material like paper or clay. Businessmen especially who needed a way to speed up the process of written communication found that conjoining letters and abbreviating words for lay use was more convenient for record keeping and transaction than the bulky long forms.
The earliest known script, Sumerian cuneiformincludes many cases of character combinations that, over time, gradually evolve from ligatures into separately recognizable characters. Ligatures figure prominently in many historical manuscripts, notably the Brahmic abugidasor the bind rune of the Migration Period Germanic runic inscriptions.
Doubles Geminated consonants during the Roman Republic era were written as a sicilicus.
However, in Nordic texts a particular type of ligature appeared for ll and tt, referred to as "broken l" and "broken t"  Medieval scribes who wrote in Latin increased their writing speed by combining characters and by introducing notational abbreviations.
Others conjoined letters for aesthetic purposes. For example, in blackletterletters with right-facing bowls b, o, and p and those with left-facing bowls c, e, o, d, g and q were written with the facing edges of the bowls superimposed.
In many script forms, characters such as h, m, and n had their vertical strokes superimposed. Scribes also used notational abbreviations to avoid having to write a whole character in one stroke.
Manuscripts in the fourteenth century employed hundreds of such abbreviations. Modifications to script bodies like these usually originate from legal, business and monastic sources, with the emphasis shifting from business to monastic sources by around the 9th and 10th centuries.
A widely-used Th ligature in a handwriting-style typeface In hand writinga ligature is made by joining two or more characters in atypical fashion by merging their parts or by writing one above or inside the other. While in printing, a ligature is a group of characters that is typeset as a unit, and the characters do not have to be joined.
For example, in some cases the fi ligature prints the letters f and i with a greater separation than when they are typeset as separate letters. When printing with movable type was invented around typefaces included many ligatures and additional letters, as they were based on handwriting.
Ligatures made printing with movable type easier because one block would replace frequent combinations of letters and also allowed more complex and interesting character designs which would otherwise collide with one another.
Ligatures began to fall out of use due to their complexity in the 20th century. Sans serif typefaces, increasingly used for body text, generally avoid ligatures, though notable exceptions include Gill Sans and Futura. Inexpensive phototypesetting machines in the s which did not require journeyman knowledge or training to operate also generally avoid them.
The trend against digraph use was further strengthened by the desktop publishing revolution starting around with the production of the Apple II. Early computer software in particular had no way to allow for ligature substitution the automatic use of ligatures where appropriatewhile most new digital typefaces did not include ligatures.
As most of the early PC development was designed for the English language which already treated ligatures as optional at best dependence on ligatures did not carry over to digital.
Ligature use fell as the number of traditional hand compositors and hot metal typesetting machine operators dropped due to the mass production of the IBM Selectric brand of electric typewriter in Jul 11, · The three definite nouns of the Basmala, Allah, use as a substitute for Bismillah ("In the name of Allah" or "In the name of God").
They write this number to avoid writing the name of God, or Qur'anic verses on ordinary papers, which can be subject to dirt or come in contact with unclean materials. In Arabic calligraphy.
Today I am showcasing 50+ beautiful free Arabic calligraphy fonts of for your projects. Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . Quran Auto Reciter provides users with a program for listening and reading the Koran.
Thanks to a set of simple controls and excellent sound, this program is a great tool for anyone interested in. and ''Glorified is Allah'' or ''Glorified is God.'' Those are the official translations in the translated Quran by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali and Dr.
Muhammad Muhsin Khan from Arabic to English. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single regardbouddhiste.com example is the character æ as used in English, in which the letters a and e are joined.
The common ampersand (&) developed from a ligature in which the handwritten Latin letters e and t (spelling et, from the Latin for "and") were combined.