The most important thing you need to remember about both processes is that they occur through meiosis, but there are a few specific distinctions between them. Spermatogenesis The male testes have tiny tubules containing diploid cells called spermatogonium that mature to become sperm. The basic function of spermatogenesis is to turn each one of the diploid spermatogonium into four haploid sperm cells. This quadrupling is accomplished through the meiotic cell division detailed in the last section.
Ovulation and fertilization occur b. Zygote implants about one week after fertilization c. Endometrium must be of sufficient quality to allow implantation d. Rare cause of infertility e. Maturation of endometrium requires sufficient sequential hormonal stimulation i. Therapy depends upon the etiologies identified 1.
Anatomical defects are corrected surgically if possible 2. Endocrinopathies and systemic illnesses are treated specifically B. Drive one or more oocytes to ovulate to increase the odds of a pregnancy 2. Intrauterine insemination to increase the number of male gametes potentially reaching the oocyte s 3.
Medications have been used to help initiate ovulation i. Clomiphene citrate-blocks estrogen receptors ii.
Bromocriptine mesylate dopamine antagonist -reduces prolactin levels 4. Cause more than the usual one oocyte to ovulate A. Ectopic growth of endometrium 1. Common sites include ovaries 2. Ectopic tissue is hormonally responsive a. Grows in the presence of estrogen 3.
Endometriosis may cause inflammation a. Distorts reproductive tissue i. May result in infertility B. Male factor infertility A. Male factor reproductive disorders cannot usually be remedied B.Prophase ‘“ formation of centrosomes, condensation of chromatin 3.
Prometaphase- degradation of the nuclear membrane, attachment of microtubules to kinetochores. At Fertilization, which must take place within a day or two of ovulation, one of the spermatozoa unites with the ovum to form a zygote. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, which is richly supplied with blood, and begins to grow.
OS inﬂuences the oocyte and embryo quality and thus the fertilization rates. ROS appears to play a signiﬁcant role in the modulation of gamete interaction and also for successful fertilization to take place. The zona protects the oocyte from entry by spermatozoa of a different species and from entry by more than one spermatozoon.
The zona also triggers the acrosomal reaction necessary for successful fertilization and helps prevent premature implantation of the embryo in the uterine tube. In the present study, to identify the interacting proteins of Oog1, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening using a GV-oocyte cDNA library and found that Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (RalGDS) is the binding partner of Oog1.
Coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interaction between Oog1 and RalGDS proteins. These reactions take place in the stroma; the reactions can occur in either the presence or the absence of light. Life cycle refers to all reproductive events between one generation and next. 2. In animals, the adult is always diploid [Instructors note: some bees, etc.
have haploid male adults]. One of the cells, a secondary oocyte.