The role of teacher in the educational set up is very important. It is a two-way process i. It is beyond argument that teacher is a backbone of the society, country and the educational system. He represents whole of the society in school which is a sub-society or mini society.
Forms[ edit ] While there is some degree of variability, there are primarily two forms of spiritual direction: They differ largely in the frequency of meeting and in the intensity of reflection.
Regular direction can involve a one- to two-hour meeting every four to eight weeks, and thus is slightly less intense than retreat direction, although spiritual exercises and disciplines are often given for the directee to attempt between meetings.
If the directee is on a retreat lasting a weekend, a week or even 40 dayshe or she will generally meet with his or her director on a daily basis for one hour.
During these daily meetings, exercises or spiritual disciplines such as lectio divina are given to the directee as fodder to continue his or her spiritual growth. Alternatively, retreat centres often offer direction or companionship to persons visiting the centre alone.
Western Christianity[ edit ] Within Christianityspiritual direction has its roots in Early Christianity. The gospels describe Jesus serving as a mentor to his disciples.
Additionally, Acts of the Apostles Chapter 9 describes Ananias helping Paul of Tarsus to grow in his newfound experience of Christianity. Likewise, several of the Pauline epistles describe Paul mentoring both Timothy and Titus among others. Tradition tells us that John the Evangelist tutored Polycarpthe 2nd-century bishop of Smyrna.
Theologian John Cassian who lived in the 4th century provided some of the earliest recorded guidelines on the Christian practice of spiritual direction. Each novice was put under the care of an older monk. Benedict of Nursia integrated Cassian's guidelines into what is now known as the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Spiritual direction is widespread in the Catholic religion: The spiritual guide aims to discern, understand what the Holy Spirit, through the situations of life, spiritual insights fruit of prayer, reading and meditation on the Bible, tells the person accompanied.
The spiritual father or spiritual director may provide advice, give indications of life and prayer, resolving doubts in matters of faith and morals without replacing the choices and decisions to the person accompanying.
Eastern Orthodoxy[ edit ] Eastern Orthodoxy comes from the same pre-schism traditions, but the role of a "spiritual director" or "elder" in Orthodoxy has maintained its important role. The Greek tradition has a long unbroken history of elders and disciples, such as Sophronius and John Moschos in the seventh century, Symeon the Elder and Symeon the New Theologian in the eleventh century, and contemporary charismatic gerontes such as Porphyrios and Paisios.
The revival of elders in the Slavic world is associated with the name of Paisius Velichkovsky —94who produced the Russian translation of the Philokalia. The most famous Russian starets of the early 19th century was Seraphim of Sarovwho went on to become one of the most revered Orthodox saints.
A more modern example of a starets is Archimandrite John Krestiankin of the Pskov Monastery of the Caves who was popularly recognized as such by many Orthodox living in Russia. Judaism[ edit ] In Judaismthe Hebrew term for spiritual director differs among traditional communities.
The verb Hashpa'ah is common in some communities though not all; the spiritual director called a mashpi'a occurs in the Habad -Lubavitch community and also in the Jewish Renewal community.
A mashgiakh ruchani is the equivalent role among mitnagedim adherents of the mussar tradition.
The purpose of hashpa'ah is to support the directee in her or his personal relationship with God, and to deepen that person's ability to find God's presence in ordinary life.
Amongst Lubavitchers this draws on the literature and praxis of Hasidism as it is practiced according to Habad standards, and to Jewish mystical tradition generally. Spiritual mentorship is customary in the Hasidic world, but not necessarily in the same way.
Sufism[ edit ] In Sufismthe term used for spiritual master is murshidArabic for "guide" or "teacher". He is more than a spiritual director and believed to be guiding the disciples based on his direct connectivity with the Divine.
The murshid's role is to spiritually guide and verbally instruct the disciple on the Sufi path after the disciple takes an oath of allegiance or Bay'ah bai'ath with him. The doctrine states that from pre-existence till pre-eternity, there shall always remain a Qutb or a Universal Man upon the earth who would be the perfect manifestation of God and at the footsteps of the Islamic prophet Mohammad.The management role included some curriculum and instruction supervision, but overall school management was the primary role principals played until the early s.
As the accountability movement gained momentum, the role of the principal changed from school manager to school instructional leader and then to the school reform leader. The women in the family all functioned within the limitations of their domestic roles and family relationships, and the directress of the Roman orphanage where Bassi hid for nine months held a position regularly assigned to women.
Teacher Job Description Summary of Position: The teacher will understand and promote the school’s mission, vision, objectives, and policies both within and outside the immediate school. The role of teacher in the educational set up is very important. It is a two-way process i.e. student and teacher, i.e.
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P5. Table of Contents. Who was Montessori? What is the Montessori Method? How did the Montessori method begin? When was Montessori education introduced in .