Research Assistant Professor Please do not quote without permission of the author Schools should be viewed not only as institutions that impart certain knowledge and skills to students, but also as environments that socialize them. Socializing students to achieve just what "aims" is the subject of current debates among educators, politicians, and business leaders alike. This debate can be understood as a conflict among three points of view: The skills and dispositions needed to actively participate in all aspects of democratic life include:
It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates promising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that a democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy, always followed by a dictatorship.
The average age of the world's greatest civilizations has been years.
Great nations rise and fall. The people go from bondage to spiritual truth, to great courage, from courage to liberty, from liberty to abundance, from abundance to selfishness, from selfishness to complacency, from complacency to apathy, from apathy to dependence, from dependence back again to bondage.
Who penned the above words? If one were to put one's faith in the reliability of the internet, the obvious answer would be Alexander Tytler. Or Lord Thomas Macaulay.
The truth is that despite their frequent use, the above text actually has its origins in two separate and independent quotes, and the author of the first half is, to date, unknown. And with regard to the second, the same book says "Author unknown.
Attributed to Benjamin Disraeli. I myself was misled The benefits and problems of democracy years before being informed of their "unverified" status.
Thus, I attempted to trace the origins of these quotes, as best I could. For the first quote, ending in "dictatorship," I have chosen to adopt the title "Why Democracies Fail," or WDF for short, which is perhaps the most common title given the quote. The last sentence of the first paragraph does not appear alongside the earliest instances of the quote.
For the second quote, I have chosen to use the title "Fatal Sequence," or FS, which was the name given to it in a newspaper. Two centuries ago, a somewhat obscure Scotsman named Tytler made this profound observation: It can only exist until the majority discovers it can vote itself largess out of the public treasury.
After that, the majority always votes for the candidate promising the most benefits with the result the democracy collapses because of the loose fiscal policy ensuing, always to be followed by a dictatorship, then a monarchy.
Peterson If you read the original version of this article, you'll note that this letter to the editor not only is 8 years earlier than the previously-known first usage of WDF, but it includes an attribution to Tytler that predates the next-known attribution by over a decade.
The relevant portion of the column, which was first among that day's queries, read as follows: It can only last until the citizens discover they can vote themselves largesse out of the public treasury. After that, the majority always votes for the candidate promising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that the Democracy always collapses over a loose fiscal policy, to be followed by a dictatorship, and then a monarchy.
Professor Tytler's name was nowhere to be found. Tytler's name is again absent when the quote was used in a Sep. Rather, Swearingen attributed the quote to a much more famous historian: In a quotation attributed to the French author, Alexis de Tocqueville, the dangers of loose fiscal policy were stated as follows: It can only exist until the voters discover they can vote themselves largess out of the public treasury.
The quote was printed on the first page of the next day's Manchester Union Leader, under the article title "Roar Approval of Barry. Ashbrook in Granville, Ohio: Alexander Frazer Tytler has written, that a democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government.
It can only exist until the voters discover they can vote themselves largesse out of the public treasury. From that moment on the majority, he said, always vote for the candidate promising the most benefits from the treasury with the result that democracy always collpases over a loose fiscal policy, always to be followed by a dictatorship.
Unfortunately, we can't argue with the professor because when he wrote that we were still colonials of Great Britain and he was explaining what had destroyed the Athenian Republic more than years before.
First, he drops any reference to the "monarchy" that previous usages stated follow the dictatorship stage. This omission has become standard in quotations of WDF, which now almost invariably end with the word "dictatorship. In a letter to the editor in the April 10, Seattle Times, where the writer said the quote was from Alexander Fraser Tytler's book "The Decline and Fall of the Athenian Republic," the earliest mention I have discovered of a source material for the quote.Oct 01, · The advantages and disadvantages of the democratic system of government in the form of pros and cons lists.
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