Life[ edit ] Ross earned his B. His primary interests include biases in human inference, judgment, and decision-making; intergroup relations and dispute resolution; political psychology; and points of contact between psychology, law, and ethics. With Robert Vallone and Mark Lepper he authored the first study to describe the hostile media effect.
When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion, creatures with prejudice and motivated by pride and vanity. Dale Carnegie Throughout its history, humankind has been motivated to war, terrorism, ethnic cleansing, genocide, racist hysteria, religious intolerance and extremism, mass suicide and many other forms of irrational and pathological behaviour.
Accordingly, each and every individual contributes and expresses a set of distinctive personal attributes to a given situation. However, each specific situation also brings a unique set of forces to bear on an individual, compelling him or her to act in different ways in different situations.
Research has proven that circumstances are more a power determinant of individual behavior than our own intuitions lead us to believe. Finally, people tend not to simply react to the objective characteristics of situation, but rather to their own personal versions of them.
The field of social psychology research may be divided into two distinct fields: A better understanding of these two broad fields of social psychology may grant us insight into the behavioural fissures that occur among and within people who, ultimately as imperfect information processors, may be persuaded to violate their own rationality, beliefs, values, and emotions.
According to Robert V. According to Le Bon, such breakdowns tend to cause crowds to commit destructive acts that few individuals would commit when acting alone i. The central idea within deindividuation is that: Cognitive dissonance Leon Festinger defines cognitive dissonance theory as an impetus toward attaining a cognitive consistency and certainty.
Cognitive dissonance implies a state in which two cognitions or thoughts are in conflict with one another, or are somewhat inconsistent with one another, which will lead the individual to feel discomfort. The sensation of discomfort in turn will induce the individual to remove the inconsistency causing him or her discomfort, and seek to balance the cognitions until a harmonious state is reached.
For example, one attitude-behaviour discrepancies is hypocrisy — e. Ideological justification Stanley Milgram succinctly observed that in certain occasions the division of labour in a society demands that individuals willingly subordinate their independent actions to serve the greater good of the larger community.
We may ask what motivated the extremists to hijack the airplanes and commit such an act? One of the answers or possible interpretation could be found in the fact that the extremists who become suicide hijackers believe that through such an act they would earn their place in paradise.
By fulfilling the directives of Osama bin Laden, hijackers would become martyrs, which would automatically earn them a place in heaven. Another question we may ask is why people adopt a particular ideology? In part, we may say that people choose to accept certain ideology because essentially those particular belief systems help them meet their psychological needs, but also it helps them understand; predict and possibly rationalise their current societal arrangements; and even realise potential alternatives to those arrangements.Ross and Richard E.
Nisbett’s “The power of situations” Paper 1: Summary Our first few weeks of class have been devoted to summaries, and the practice of writing effective, informative synopses of .
Professors Ross and Nisbett eloquently argue that the context we find ourselves in substantially affects our behavior in this timely reissue of one of social psychology's classic textbooks.
Download PDF: The Person and the Situation by Lee Ross. A Comparative Analysis of Ross and Nisbett’s “The Power of Situations” and Fromm’s “Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem” Introduction Ross and Nisbett disagree with Fromm about the causes for obedience or disobedience to authority.
Lee Ross is a professor of psychology at Stanford University and co-founder of the Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation The author of three influential books, Human Inference and the Person and the Situation (both with Richard Nisbett) and, more recently The Wisest One in the Room (with Thomas Gilovich) and many highly cited papers, his.
and the Situation, Ross and Nisbett seek to part on data that are flawed by person-situation confounds.
Personal Power and Positive Self-Esteem. Sun, 14 Oct GMT The Person and The Situation PDF ebook - situations, and person-situation interactionsthe person and. important behaviors, cognitions, and emotions (e.g., Ross & Nisbett, ).
Second and relatedly, the effects of some situational qualities may be surprising and/or beyond the awareness.